Cover image for The Weimar century German émigrés and the ideological foundations of the Cold War
Title:
The Weimar century German émigrés and the ideological foundations of the Cold War
Author:
Greenberg, Udi, 1980-
ISBN:
9780691159331

9781400852390
Personal Author:
Physical Description:
1 online resource
Contents:
Introduction -- The search for "responsible elites" : Carl J. Friedrich and the reform of higher education -- Socialist reform, the rule of law, and labor outreach : Ernst Fraenkel and the concept of "collective democracy" -- Conservative Catholicism and American philanthropy : Waldemar Gurian, "personalist" democracy, and anti-Communism -- Individual liberties and "militant democracy" : Karl Loewenstein and aggressive liberalism -- From the League of Nations to Vietnam : Hans J. Morgenthau and realist reform of international relations -- Conclusion.
Abstract:
"The Weimar Century reveals the origins of two dramatic events: Germany's post-World War II transformation from a racist dictatorship to a liberal democracy, and the ideological genesis of the Cold War. Blending intellectual, political, and international histories, Udi Greenberg shows that the foundations of Germany's reconstruction lay in the country's first democratic experiment, the Weimar Republic (1918-1933). He traces the paths of five crucial German émigrés who participated in Weimar's intense political debates, spent the Nazi era in the United States, and then rebuilt Europe after a devastating war. Examining the unexpected stories of these diverse individuals--Protestant political thinker Carl J. Friedrich, Socialist theorist Ernst Fraenkel, Catholic publicist Waldemar Gurian, liberal lawyer Karl Loewenstein, and international relations theorist Hans Morgenthau--Greenberg uncovers the intellectual and political forces that forged Germany's democracy after dictatorship, war, and occupation. In restructuring German thought and politics, these émigrés also shaped the currents of the early Cold War. Having borne witness to Weimar's political clashes and violent upheavals, they called on democratic regimes to permanently mobilize their citizens and resources in global struggle against their Communist enemies. In the process, they gained entry to the highest levels of American power, serving as top-level advisors to American occupation authorities in Germany and Korea, consultants for the State Department in Latin America, and leaders in universities and philanthropic foundations across Europe and the United States. Their ideas became integral to American global hegemony. From interwar Germany to the dawn of the American century, The Weimar Century sheds light on the crucial ideas, individuals, and politics that made the trans-Atlantic postwar order"-- Provided by publisher.
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Summary

Summary

How ideas, individuals, and political traditions from Weimar Germany molded the global postwar order

The Weimar Century reveals the origins of two dramatic events: Germany's post-World War II transformation from a racist dictatorship to a liberal democracy, and the ideological genesis of the Cold War. Blending intellectual, political, and international histories, Udi Greenberg shows that the foundations of Germany's reconstruction lay in the country's first democratic experiment, the Weimar Republic (1918-33). He traces the paths of five crucial German émigrés who participated in Weimar's intense political debates, spent the Nazi era in the United States, and then rebuilt Europe after a devastating war. Examining the unexpected stories of these diverse individuals--Protestant political thinker Carl J. Friedrich, Socialist theorist Ernst Fraenkel, Catholic publicist Waldemar Gurian, liberal lawyer Karl Loewenstein, and international relations theorist Hans Morgenthau--Greenberg uncovers the intellectual and political forces that forged Germany's democracy after dictatorship, war, and occupation.

In restructuring German thought and politics, these émigrés also shaped the currents of the early Cold War. Having borne witness to Weimar's political clashes and violent upheavals, they called on democratic regimes to permanently mobilize their citizens and resources in global struggle against their Communist enemies. In the process, they gained entry to the highest levels of American power, serving as top-level advisors to American occupation authorities in Germany and Korea, consultants for the State Department in Latin America, and leaders in universities and philanthropic foundations across Europe and the United States. Their ideas became integral to American global hegemony.

From interwar Germany to the dawn of the American century, The Weimar Century sheds light on the crucial ideas, individuals, and politics that made the trans-Atlantic postwar order.


Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. vii
Introductionp. 1
The "Miracle " of Germany's Reconstructionp. 5
The Foundations of Postwar Thought: The Weimar Republic and Its Discontentsp. 11
Émigrés and the American Cold War: Knowledge and Powerp. 17
Chapter I The Search for ôResponsible Elites": Carl J. Friedrich and the Reform of Higher Educationp. 25
Protestant Legitimacy and Elite Education in Heidelbergp. 28
The Heidelberg Mission in the United States: The Creation of a New American Academiap. 45
Cold War Universities: "Responsible Elites" in Cold War United States and Germanyp. 56
Chapter II Socialist Reform, the Rule of Law, and Labor Outreach: Ernst Fraenkel and the Concept of "Collective Democracy"p. 76
Democracy, Labor, and Law in Frankfurt and Berlinp. 79
Social Democracy and U. S. Power: Fraenkel in the United Stales and Koreap. 89
The German Left and the Cold Warp. 107
Chapter III Conservative Catholicism and American Philanthropy: Waldemar Gurian, "Personalist" Democracy, and Anti-communismp. 120
Catholicism, "Personalism," and Democracy in the Rhineland: The Origins of Gurian's Thoughtp. 122
The Path to the "Theory of Totalitarianism": The Personalist Campaign against Nazism in Exilep. 134
Personalism and American Philanthropy: Transatlantic Democracy and Anti-communismp. 144
Chapter IV Individual Liberties and "Militant Democracy": Karl Loewenstein and Aggressive Liberalismp. 169
The Internal Struggle of Liberal Democracyp. 172
"Militant Democracy" and U.S. Diplomacy in Latin Americap. 181
"Militant Democracy" in the Cold War: Liberalism and Anti-communism in West Germanyp. 198
Chapter V From the League of Nations to Vietnam: Hans J. Morgenthau and Realist Reform of International Relationsp. 211
International Politics, Law, and Warp. 213
Morgenthau and the Cold War Establishmentp. 225
Power and Morality: Opposition to the Intervention in Vietnamp. 237
Conclusionp. 266
List of Abbreviationsp. 263
List of Archivesp. 265
Indexp. 267