Cover image for Deluxe Jim Crow civil rights and American health policy, 1935-1954
Title:
Deluxe Jim Crow civil rights and American health policy, 1935-1954
Author:
Thomas, Karen Kruse.
ISBN:
9780820341781
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Athens : University of Georgia Press, c2011. (Baltimore, Md. : Project MUSE, 2015)
Physical Description:
1 online resource (xvii, 372 p. :) ill., map ;
Series:
UPCC book collections on Project MUSE.
Abstract:
"Thomas provides a detailed history of federal health policy as it was applied to the U.S. South in the mid-twentieth century, a period when the region was described as "the number one health problem in the nation." In particular, she focuses on how reformers' early emphasis on across-the-board regional uplift was eclipsed by efforts to desegregate medical facilities and address racial disparities in the health care system"-- Provided by publisher.

"Plagued by geographic isolation, poverty, and acute shortages of health professionals and hospital beds, the South was dubbed by Surgeon General Thomas Parran "the nation's number one health problem." The improvement of southern, rural, and black health would become a top priority of the U.S. Public Health Service during the Roosevelt and Truman administrations.Karen Kruse Thomas details how NAACP lawsuits pushed southern states to equalize public services and facilities for blacks just as wartime shortages of health personnel and high rates of draft rejections generated broad support for health reform. Southern Democrats leveraged their power in Congress and used the war effort to call for federal aid to uplift the South. The language of regional uplift, Thomas contends, allowed southern liberals to aid blacks while remaining silent on race. Reformers embraced, at least initially, the notion of "deluxe Jim Crow"--support for health care that maintained segregation. Thomas argues that this strategy was, in certain respects, a success, building much-needed hospitals and training more black doctors.By the 1950s, deluxe Jim Crow policy had helped to weaken the legal basis for segregation. Thomas traces this transformation at the national level and in North Carolina, where "deluxe Jim Crow reached its fullest potential." This dual focus allows her to examine the shifting alliances--between blacks and liberal whites, southerners and northerners, activists and doctors--that drove policy. Deluxe Jim Crow provides insight into a variety of historical debates, including the racial dimensions of state building, the nature of white southern liberalism, and the role of black professionals during the long civil rights movement"-- Provided by publisher.
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Summary

Summary

Plagued by geographic isolation, poverty, and acute shortages of health professionals and hospital beds, the South was dubbed by Surgeon General Thomas Parran "the nation's number one health problem." The improvement of southern, rural, and black health would become a top priority of the U.S. Public Health Service during the Roosevelt and Truman administrations.

Karen Kruse Thomas details how NAACP lawsuits pushed southern states to equalize public services and facilities for blacks just as wartime shortages of health personnel and high rates of draft rejections generated broad support for health reform. Southern Democrats leveraged their power in Congress and used the war effort to call for federal aid to uplift the South. The language of regional uplift, Thomas contends, allowed southern liberals to aid blacks while remaining silent on race. Reformers embraced, at least initially, the notion of "deluxe Jim Crow"--support for health care that maintained segregation. Thomas argues that this strategy was, in certain respects, a success, building much-needed hospitals and training more black doctors.

By the 1950s, deluxe Jim Crow policy had helped to weaken the legal basis for segregation. Thomas traces this transformation at the national level and in North Carolina, where "deluxe Jim Crow reached its fullest potential." This dual focus allows her to examine the shifting alliances--between blacks and liberal whites, southerners and northerners, activists and doctors--that drove policy. Deluxe Jim Crow provides insight into a variety of historical debates, including the racial dimensions of state building, the nature of white southern liberalism, and the role of black professionals during the long civil rights movement.


Table of Contents

List of Tablesp. ix
List of Figuresp. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Deluxe Jim Crow Timelinep. xv
Introduction. The Devil's Bargain of Deluxe Jim Crow Health Reformp. 1
Part One The Nation's Number One Health Problem, 1900-1938
1 The Roots of Deluxe Jim Crowp. 9
2 The New Deal in Healthp. 45
3 New Deal Health in North Carolinap. 76
Part Two Deluxe Jim Crow Comes of Age, 1938-1945
4 The South and National Health Reformp. 103
5 State Reform and the Racial Divide over National Health Insurancep. 138
Part Three. Deluxe Jim Crow under Harry S. Truman, 1945–1953
6 Hill-Burton and the Deluxe Jim Crow Hospitalp. 157
7 Hill-Burton in North Carolinap. 182
8 Training Black Doctors as Public Policyp. 208
9 Training Black Doctors in North Carolinap. 229
10 Racial Disparities and the Truman Health Planp. 250
Conclusion. Deluxe Jim Crow in Education versus Health Carep. 266
Appendix 1 Deluxe Jim Crow Organizationsp. 281
Appendix 2 Deluxe Jim Crow Individualsp. 289
Appendix 3 U.S. and Southern Populations by Race and Rural-Urban Residence, 1900-2000p. 297
Notesp. 299
Bibliographyp. 347
Indexp. 357