Cover image for Life in ancient Egypt.
Title:
Life in ancient Egypt.
Author:
Erman, Adolf, 1854-1937.
ISBN:
9780486226323
Personal Author:
Uniform Title:
Aegypten und aegyptisches Leben im Altertum. English
Publication Information:
New York : Dover Publications , [1971]
Physical Description:
xx, 570 p. : illus., maps, plans. ; 22 cm.
General Note:
Translation of Aegypten und aegyptisches Leben im Altertum.

Reprint of the 1894 ed.
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Book BILKUTUP0031518 DT60 .E713 1971 Central Campus Library
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Summary

Summary

What was it like to live in the ancient land watered by the Nile, thousands of years before Christ was born? How did a man earn his living, what did he wear, where did he go in his leisure time? What was the relationship between an ordinary Egyptian and his government, his wife, his children? Was life for him grim or optimistic, difficult or easy, reverent or worldly? Did his people travel, explore, conquer? Were they very much different from those of the other great civilizations of antiquity, the Greek and the Roman? What was the nature of their science, art, magic, religion? If the past has lessons for the present, what can we deduce from ancient Egyptian life that is of value to us today?For generations, scholar, specialists, and general readers have been turning to a monumental sourcebook for the answers to such questions: Life in Ancient Egypt by Adolf Erman. It is one of the most influential and frequently consulted works on Egyptology ever written, a classic in its field and the basis of numerous other studies and works. It is still one of a very few books that offer the modern reader so satisfying, informative, and complete a survey in one volume.Erman, a rigorously trained scholar, Director of the Egyptian Museum in Berlin, and author of standard works on Egyptology, covers his subject thoroughly and with a wealth of interesting, concrete detail. He examines ancient Egypt's political structure, crime and police systems, domestic life and kinships, dress, amusements, religion, learning, mathematics, magic and folk beliefs, literature, art, agriculture, trades, arts and crafts, commerce, warfare, and much else. His objective point of view, eschewing romanticism on the one hand and frigid pedantry on the other, gives us a treatment that is as trustworthy in fact as it is evocative in effect - as Professor Jon Manchip White says in his new introduction for this edition, ""From first to last ... a superb performance."" The scholar, the student and the merely curious can do no better than to go to this first, great authority on ancient Egypt. Profusely illustrated throughout.


Table of Contents

Introduction
Traditional Characteristics of Egypt
Importance of Egypt in the History of the World
Jewish and Greek Sources
The Egyptian Monuments
Difficulties inherent in the Subject
Chapter I The Land Of Egypt
Geology of the Country
Climate and Inundation
Flora and Fauna
Character of the Country; its Influence on the Nation
The Twofold Division of the Country
Density of the Population
The Nomes or Provinces
Upper Egypt
Middle Egypt and the Feyum
Lower Egypt
Chapter II The People Of Egypt
Origin of the Egyptians
Characteristics of the Egyptian People
Dawn of Egyptian History
Chapter III History Of Ancient Egypt
Chronology
The Old Empire
The Middle Empire; the Hyksos
The Eighteenth Dynasty
The Religious Reformation
The Nineteenth Dynasty
The Twentieth Dynasty
Later Periods
Chapter IV The King And His Court
The Status of Royalty in the East
Titles of the King
The King in his Divine Character
The Regalia and the Officials belonging thereto
Suite of the King
The King's Accession
The King in his Priestly Character
The King the Head of the Government
The Court and the Court Ceremonial
The Courtiers
The King's Consorts
The Princes
Education of the Princes
Chapter V Political Conditions In Egypt Under The Old Empire
The Nomes
The Two Halves of the Kingdom
"Government of Upper Egypt ; the " Great Men of the South "
Government of the North Country
The Treasury Department
Administration of Justice
Honours and Titles
Disintegration of the Kingdom under the Middle Empire
Hereditary Government of the Nomes
The Nomarchs
Administration of Government in the Nomes
The Treasury Department under the Middle Empire
Decline of the Bureaucratic Government
Social conditions in the Earlier Period
Property of the Aristocracy
The Middle Class
Chapter VI Political Conditions In Egypt Under The New Empire
Disappearance of the Old Nobility
Soldiers and Priests become the Ruling Classes
The Slaves of the King
The Highest Officials
The Treasury Department
Scribes and Deeds
The Archives
The Official and his Chief
Reprimand and Deposition
Distinctions
"Bestowal of the " Gold "
The Workmen and their Life
Social conditions under the New Empire
Serfs and Bondservants
Chapter VII The Police And The Courts Of Justice
Robberies in the Theban Necropolis
Lawsuit against the Tomb Robbers
The Courts of Justice under the Old Empire
The Courts of Justice under the New Empire
Laws ; exceptional Procedure
A Case of High Treason
Contracts
Statues regarding Endowments
Chapter VIII Family Life
The Status of the Wife
Double Marriages
The Harem
Marriage with a Sister
Morality of the Nation
Inheritance of Property
Genealogies
Personal Names
Surnames and Pet-names
Erasure of Names
Education and Morals
Chapter IX The House
Preliminary Remarks
Change of Site of the Royal Towns
Memphis
Houses of the Old Empire
Pictures of Houses of the New Empire
Country Houses
Town Residences of the New Empire
Palace of the King
Chairs and Couches
Tables and Boxes
Household Servants
The Kitchen
The Bakery
Beer
Meals
The Garden
Vine Culture
Preparation of Wine
Chapter X Dress
Preliminary Remarks
Men's Dress under the Old Empire
Men's Dress under the Middle Empire
Men's Dress under the New Empire
The Royal Short Skirt
Robes of Office
Women's Dress under the Old Empire
Women's Dress under the New Empire
General Character of Egyptian Dress
The Laundry
Men's Coiffure under the Old and the New Empire
Women's Coiffure under the Old and the New Empire
Beards
Sandals and Shoes
Ornaments
Coverings for the Head
Sticks and Scepters
Rouging and Anointing
Cosmetics
Chapter XI Recreation
Preliminary Remarks
Bird Snaring
Fishing
Hippopotamus Hunting
Fabulous Animals
Desert Hunting
Dogs and Monkeys
Bull Fights
Gymnastics
Dancing
Music and Song
Feasts
Games
Chapter XII Religion
Development of Religion
Attempt at a Reformation
Legends of the Gods
Rê' and Isis
The Rebellion of Mankind
The Myth of Osiris
Other Divine Myths
Private and Public Worship
Ritual
Sacrifices
Festivals
The House of the God
Plan of the Temples
Temple Decoration
The Names of the Temples
The Temple Enclosure
The Temple of Tell el Amarna
The Temple Outbuildings
The Priesthood under the Old Empire
The Priesthood under the Middle Empire
Rise of the Priesthood
The Priests of Amon under the New Empire
Dress of the Priests
Gifts of the Kings to the Gods
Gifts of Ramses III. To the Gods
The Property of Amon
Chapter XIII The Dead
The Soul of Man and his Ka
Influence of the Myth of Osiris on Funerary Worship
Burial
Tombs of the Old Empire
Tombs of the Middle Empire
Tombs of the New Empire
Treatment of the Viscera
Employment of Magic
Employment of Wood
Pillars
Tendency to a Freer Development in Architecture
Smaller Objects of Art
Chapter XVII Agriculture
Irrigation
Ploughing
Hoeing and Sowing
Harvest
Threshing and Winnowing
Granaries
Various Species of Corn
Cattle Breeding
Life of the Herdsmen
Small Stock and Birds
Cattle Breeding under the New Empire
Status of the Agricultural Labourer
Chapter XVIII Arts And Crafts
Status of the Artisan
Matting and Woven Stuffs
Weaving and Spinning
Leatherwork
The Use of Wood
Carpenters' Tools
Peculiarities of Egyptian Carpenters' Work
Pottery
Glass Blowing and Metal Smelting
Metals
Goldsmiths' Work
Sources of the Various Metals
The Nubian Gold Mines
The Mines of Sinai
The Quarries of Turah
The Quarries of the Silsilis and Syene
The Quarries of Hammamât
The Transport of Blocks of Stone
Chapter XIX Traffic And Trade
Papyrus Skiffs and Wooden Boats
The Boats of the Old Empire
The Boats of the Middle Empire
The Boats of the New Empire
Litters
Donkeys and Horses
Carriages
"Riding, Traveling, and Postal Arrangements"
Marketing
Barter and Exchange
Intercourse with Nubia
Nubia in the Earlier Period
Nubia under the New Empire
The Government of Nubia
The Divine Land
The Incense Countries
Intercourse with the North
Syria and Palestine
Chapter XX War
Unwarlike Character of the Egyptians
A War under the Old Empire
The Wars of the Middle Empire
The Fortresses of the Middle Empire
Warlike Character of the New Empire
The Battle of Kadesh
The Syrian Fortresses
Celebration of a Victory
Treaty with the Cheta
Time of Peace with Syria
Frontier Relations
The Libyans and the Maritime Nations
A Naval Engagement
Constitution of the Army under the New Empire
The Divisions of the Army and their Equipment
The Chariot Force
The Pitiable Position of the Subordinate Officers