Cover image for International human rights law
Title:
International human rights law
Author:
Smith, Rhona K. M., author.
ISBN:
9780198843672
Personal Author:
Edition:
Ninth edition.
Physical Description:
xxxviii, 454 pages ; 25 cm
General Note:
Previous edition: 2018.
Contents:
Introduction -- Historical background -- The United Nations -- The International Bill of Human Rights -- Regional protection of human rights -- Europe -- The Americas -- Africa -- Monitoring, implementing, and enforcing human rights -- Substantive rights : general comments -- Equality and non-discrimination --Rights for specific vulnerable persons -- The right to life -- The right to liberty of person -- Equality before the law : the right to a fair trial -- The right to work -- Freedom from torture; cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishmentthe -- The right to self-determination -- Indigenous peoples' and minority rights -- Freedom of expression -- The right to education and human rights education -- Sustainable development and human rights -- Current issues: non-state actors.
Abstract:
International Human Rights Law provides a concise, wide-ranging introduction for students new to the subject.
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Summary

Summary

Illustrating the scope of this fascinating and wide-reaching subject to the student, this clear and concise text gives a broad introduction to international human rights law. Coverage includes regional systems of protection, the role of the UN, and a variety of substantive rights. The authorskilfully guides students through the complexities of the subject, and then prepares them for further study and research. Key cases and areas of debate are highlighted throughout, and a wealth of references to cases and further readings are provided at the end of each chapter.Online resourcesAccompanied by online resources which contain links to the full cases referenced at the end of each chapter as well as a list of annotated web links to aid further study.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Table of cases/communicationsp. xix
Table of instrumentsp. xxv
1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 Public international lawp. 1
1.2 International human rights lawp. 1
1.3 Overview and structure of bookp. 4
2 Historical backgroundp. 8
2.1 Origins of international human rightsp. 8
2.2 The eighteenth century: revolutions and rightsp. 9
2.3 The role of international lawp. 10
2.4 The law of aliensp. 10
2.4.1 Reparations and reprisalsp. 11
2.4.2 The two schools of thoughtp. 11
2.4.3 Contemporary law on aliensp. 13
2.5 Diplomatic lawsp. 13
2.5.1 The development of diplomatic lawp. 14
2.5.2 Modern diplomatic lawp. 14
2.6 The laws of war-international humanitarian lawp. 15
2.6.1 The laws of warp. 15
2.6.2 Humanitarian lawp. 16
2.6.3 Modern humanitarian law and laws of warp. 17
2.7 Slaveryp. 18
2.7.1 The development of the lawp. 18
2.7.2 The modern law of slaveryp. 19
2.8 Minority rightsp. 19
2.8.1 The treaty approach to minoritiesp. 19
2.8.2 The link to nationalismp. 20
2.8.3 After the First World Warp. 20
2.8.4 The Peace Conferencep. 21
2.8.5 The League of Nations and minoritiesp. 22
2.8.6 The modern law on minoritiesp. 24
2.9 The International Labour Organizationp. 25
2.10 After the Second World Warp. 26
2.10.1 The Potsdam Conferencep. 26
2.10.2 Towards international protection of human rightsp. 26
2.10.3 On the brink of the United Nationsp. 27
3 The United Nationsp. 29
3.1 The United Nations Charterp. 29
3.2 The Security Councilp. 30
3.2.1 Self-determinationp. 31
3.2.2 United Nations interventionsp. 32
3.2.3 Other situationsp. 32
3.2.4 Sanctionsp. 33
3.3 The General Assemblyp. 33
3.3.1 Debates and Declarations on human rights issuesp. 34
3.3.2 Receiving reportsp. 35
3.4 The International Court of Justicep. 35
3.5 The Economic and Social Councilp. 36
3.5.1 The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)p. 36
3.6 The Human Rights Councilp. 37
3.6.1 The former Commission on Human Rightsp. 37
3.6.2 The Human Rights Councilp. 37
3.6.3 The functions of the Councilp. 38
3.6.4 Individual complaintsp. 39
3.6.5 Special proceduresp. 40
3.6.6 The Human Rights Council Advisory Committeep. 41
3.7 The High Commissioner for Human Rightsp. 41
3.7.1 High Commissioner for Human Rightsp. 42
3.8 International criminal law-an independent systemp. 42
3.8.1 The influence of the Nuremberg Criminal Tribunalp. 43
3.8.2 The International Criminal Courtp. 43
3.9 Developing international human rights lawp. 43
3.9.1 Treaty-monitoring bodiesp. 45
3.10 Building international human rights lawp. 50
3.10.1 Protection of vulnerable groupsp. 50
3.11 Other human rights instrumentsp. 52
3.11.1 Slavery, torture, forced labour, and traffickingp. 53
3.12 The impact of the United Nations on international human rightsp. 53
4 The International Bill of Human Rightsp. 56
4.1 The Universal Declaration of Human Rightsp. 57
4.1.1 Is the Universal Declaration binding?p. 57
4.1.2 The importance of the Universal Declarationp. 58
4.1.3 The content of the Universal Declarationp. 59
4.1.4 Minority protection and the Universal Declarationp. 60
4.1.5 The relevance of the Universal Declarationp. 61
4.2 The United Nations International Covenants of 1966p. 62
4.2.1 A family of universal rights?p. 64
4.2.2 The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rightsp. 65
4.2.3 The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rightsp. 66
4.3 Building on the Bill of Rights-extending international human rights lawp. 68
4.4 Conclusions on the Bill of Human Rightsp. 69
5 Regional protection of human rightsp. 72
5.1 The advantages of regional systemsp. 73
5.1.1 Drafting and adopting textsp. 73
5.1.2 Accessibilityp. 73
5.1.3 Enforceabilityp. 74
5.2 The principal regional systemsp. 75
5.3 Other regional initiativesp. 76
5.3.1 The Arab Leaguep. 77
5.3.2 The Commonwealth of Independent Statesp. 77
5.3.3 Asia and the Pacificp. 78
5.4 Conclusions on regional systemsp. 80
6 Europep. 83
6.1 Council of Europep. 83
6.1.1 The development of European human rights protectionp. 84
6.1.2 The Convention and associated instrumentsp. 84
6.1.3 The institutional frameworkp. 88
6.1.4 Implementing human rights-the institutional machineryp. 91
6.1.5 Monitoring the European Convention on Human Rightsp. 92
6.2 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europep. 96
6.2.1 The Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rightsp. 98
6.2.2 The High Commissioner on National Minoritiesp. 98
6.2.3 The Representative on Freedom of the Mediap. 99
6.3 European Unionp. 99
6.3.1 The European Court of Justice/Court of Justice of the European Union and human rightsp. 100
6.3.2 Constitutional recognition of human rights in the European Unionp. 101
6.3.3 The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Unionp. 102
63.4 The Fundamental Rights Agencyp. 103
6.3.5 Social policyp. 103
6.4 Conclusionsp. 104
7 The Americasp. 108
7.1 The development of American human rightsp. 108
7.2 The Declaration and the Conventionsp. 109
7.2.1 The American Declarationp. 109
7.2.2 The American Conventionp. 110
7.2.3 Additional Protocolsp. 110
7.2.4 Other conventions and instrumentsp. 111
7.3 The institutional frameworkp. 113
7.3.1 The Inter-American Commission on Human Rightsp. 113
7.3.2 The Inter-American Court of Human Rightsp. 114
7.3.3 The Inter-American Council for Integral Developmentp. 116
7.3.4 The General Assemblyp. 117
7.3.5 The Inter-American Commission of Womenp. 117
7.4 Implementing human rightsp. 117
7.4.1 Monitoring human rights outwith the Conventionp. 118
7.4.2 Convention-reportsp. 120
7.4.3 Convention-inter-State complaintsp. 120
7.4.4 Convention-individual complaintsp. 120
7.5 Conclusionsp. 123
8 Africap. 126
8.1 Development of human rights protectionp. 127
8.2 The African Charter and other instrumentsp. 127
8.2.1 The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rightsp. 127
8.2.2 The OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa 1969p. 128
8.2.3 African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of internally Displaced Persons in Africa 2009p. 130
8.2.4 The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child 1990p. 130
8.2.5 Protocol on Women's Rightsp. 130
8.3 Institutional frameworkp. 131
8.3.1 The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rightsp. 132
8.3.2 The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rightsp. 132
8.3.3 Proposed African Court of justice and Human Rightsp. 134
8.3.4 The Assembly of Heads of State and Governmentp. 135
8.3.5 The role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs)p. 136
8.4 Enforcing human rightsp. 137
8.4.1 Reportsp. 137
8.4.2 Inter-State complaintsp. 137
8.4.3 Individual complaintsp. 138
8.5 African (sub-)regional mechanismsp. 140
8.5.1 ECOWASp. 140
8.5.2 East African Communityp. 140
8.6 Conclusionsp. 141
9 Monitoring, implementing, and enforcing human rightsp. 144
9.1 The reports systemp. 144
9.2 Inter-State complaintsp. 146
9.3 Individual complaintsp. 147
9.4 Special procedures: rapporteurs, independent experts, and working groupsp. 149
9.5 Site/country visitsp. 150
9.5.1 Torture Prevention and Visits to Places of Detentionp. 150
9.6 Fact Finding Missions and Commissions of Inquiryp. 150
9.7 The role of ancillary bodiesp. 151
9.7.1 United Nations' bodiesp. 151
9.7.2 International Committee of the Red Crossp. 153
9.8 Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)p. 153
9.9 Individualsp. 154
9.10 National human rights institutionsp. 155
9.11 Overview of problems with the present systemp. 155
9.11.1 Ratifications, declarations, and reservationsp. 156
9.11.2 State reports-quantity and qualityp. 158
9.11.3 Resourcesp. 161
9.11.3 Implementation and sanctionsp. 164
9.12 Pluralism and homogeneityp. 166
9.13 Reform? Some observationsp. 166
10 Substantive rights-general commentsp. 171
10.1 Content of rightsp. 171
10.2 State discretion and other limitationsp. 172
10.2.1 State discretionp. 172
10.2.2 Clash of rightsp. 174
10.2.3 Derogationsp. 174
10.2.4 Reservationsp. 176
10.2.5 Declarationsp. 179
10.2.6 Denunciationsp. 179
10.3 Interpretation and applicationp. 180
10.4 Examining human rightsp. 181
11 Equality and non-discriminationp. 185
11.1 The concept of equalityp. 186
11.2 The prohibition on discriminationp. 186
11.3 Sex discriminationp. 187
11.3.1 The Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Womenp. 189
11.3.2 Developing the lawp. 189
11.3.3 The Convention on the Elimination of AH Forms of Discrimination against Womenp. 190
11.3.4 Strengthening women's rightsp. 192
11.4 Race discriminationp. 192
11.4.1 Development of international lawp. 193
11.4.2 The Declaration and the Conventionp. 194
11.4.3 Definition of 'racial discrimination'p. 195
11.4.4 Conclusionsp. 196
11.5 Religious discriminationp. 197
11.5.1 Developing the international prohibitionp. 198
11.5.2 Developing the Declarationp. 199
11.5.3 Content of the Declarationp. 200
11.5.4 Developing the conceptp. 201
11.5.5 Special thematic rapporteurs on religious intolerance and discriminationp. 202
11.5.6 Discrimination at workp. 202
11.5.7 Conclusionsp. 203
11.6 Other grounds of discriminationp. 204
11.6.1 Languagep. 204
11.6.2 Ability/disabilityp. 205
11.6.3 Othersp. 206
11.7 Conclusionsp. 207
12 Rights for specific vulnerable personsp. 210
12.1 Vulnerable peoplep. 211
12.2 Refugeesp. 211
12.2.1 Historical issuesp. 212
12.2.2 Refugees' rights and the 1951 Conventionp. 212
12.2.3 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugeesp. 214
12.2.4 Regional developmentsp. 215
12.2.5 Developmentsp. 216
12.3 Internally displaced personsp. 217
12.3.1 International developmentsp. 217
12.3.2 Regional developmentsp. 218
12.4 Stateless personsp. 218
12.4.1 International developmentsp. 219
12.4.2 Rights of stateless personsp. 220
12.5 Womenp. 220
12.5.1 Historical issuesp. 220
12.5.2 Rights of womenp. 221
12.5.3 International developmentsp. 225
12.5.4 Regional developmentsp. 225
12.6 Childrenp. 226
12.6.1 Historical issuesp. 226
12.6.2 Children's rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Childp. 227
12.6.3 International developmentsp. 231
12.6.4 Regional developmentsp. 231
12.7 Older personsp. 232
12.7.1 Key issuesp. 233
12.7.2 International developmentsp. 233
12.7.3 Regional developmentsp. 234
12.8 Conclusionsp. 235
13 The right to lifep. 238
13.1 Right to lifep. 238
13.1.1 A positive obligation to protect lifep. 239
13.1.2 Parameters of lifep. 241
13.2 Permissible deprivation of lifep. 243
13.2.1 Death penaltyp. 243
13.2.2 Death by actions of 5tate security forcesp. 245
13.2.3 Death during armed conflictp. 247
13.3 Genocidep. 248
13.3.1 Definition of genocidep. 249
13.3.2 The Genocide Conventionp. 250
13.3.3 Genocide as an international crimep. 251
13.3.4 The work of the International Criminal Tribunalsp. 252
13.3.5 Conclusions on the prohibition on genocidep. 253
13.4 Conclusionsp. 254
14 The right to liberty of personp. 257
14.1 Slavery and servitudep. 257
14.1.1 Slaveryp. 258
14.1.2 Slave trade and traffickingp. 259
14.1.3 Analogous practicesp. 261
14.1.4 Forced or compulsory labourp. 262
14.2 Liberty and security of personp. 264
14.2.1 Deprivation of libertyp. 265
14.2.2 Grounds of detentionp. 265
14.2.3 Procedural guaranteesp. 269
14.2.4 Derogations from the provisionsp. 271
14.3 Conclusionsp. 271
15 Equality before the law-the right to a fair trialp. 274
15.1 Recognition, equality, and access issuesp. 275
15.1.1 Recognition as a person before the lawp. 275
15.1.2 Lack of capacity to enter legal obligationsp. 276
15.1.3 Problems with defining 'persons'p. 277
15.1.4 Equality of persons before the lawp. 277
15.1.5 A right of access to a court?p. 278
15.2 Prohibition on retroactive penal legislationp. 279
15.2.1 National and international crimesp. 279
15.2.2 Defining crimesp. 280
15.2.3 Examples of violationsp. 280
15.3 What are 'courts and tribunals'?p. 281
15.3.1 The treaty-monitoring bodies?p. 282
15.4 An independent and impartial courtp. 282
15.4.1 Jurisprudencep. 283
15.5 Presumption of innocencep. 285
15.6 Minimum guarantees for criminal trialsp. 286
15.6.1 The language of the trial and chargesp. 287
15.6.2 Adequate time and facilities to prepare and conduct a defencep. 288
15.6.3 Trial in absentiap. 290
15.6.4 Legal aidp. 290
15.6.5 Trial within a reasonable timep. 290
15.6.6 Public hearingp. 291
15.6.7 Double jeopardyp. 292
15.6.8 Appeal hearingp. 292
15.7 Conclusionsp. 293
16 The right to workp. 296
16.1 The right to workp. 296
16.1.1 An absolute right?p. 297
16.1.2 The duty incumbent on Statesp. 297
16.1.3 Components of the right to workp. 298
16.1.4 Freedom from arbitrary dismissalp. 299
16.1.5 Equalityp. 300
16.2 The right to just and favourable conditions of work and remunerationp. 302
16.2.1 Conditions of workp. 302
16.2.2 Working time and rest periodsp. 304
16.2.3 Holidaysp. 305
16.2.4 Remunerationp. 305
16.2.5 Link to adequate standard of livingp. 307
16.3 The right to equal pay for equal workp. 308
16.4 Conclusionsp. 310
17 Freedom from torture; cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishmentp. 312
17.1 A hierarchy of treatment?p. 312
17.1.1 The inclusion of mental sufferingp. 313
17.2 Torturep. 314
17.2.1 The international positionp. 314
17.2.2 The Inter-American systemp. 316
17.2.3 The European systemp. 317
17.2.4 Threat of torturep. 317
17.2.5 Reprisalsp. 318
17.2.6 Scientific and medical experimentationp. 318
17.2.7 Compensation for victimsp. 319
17.3 Inhuman or degrading treatment or punishmentp. 319
17.3.1 Corporal punishmentp. 319
17.3.2 Death-row phenomenonp. 321
17.4 Prevention of torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatmentp. 323
17.4.1 The international positionp. 324
17.4.2 The regional positionp. 325
17.5 Emergency situationsp. 326
17.6 Conclusionsp. 327
18 The right to self-determinationp. 330
18.1 The right to self-determinationp. 330
18.2 The origins of the right to self-determinationp. 331
18.2.1 After the First World Warp. 332
18.2.2 The era of the League of Nationsp. 332
18.3 The United Nations, decolonization, and self-determinationp. 333
18.4 Self-determination todayp. 335
18.4.1 Examples of non-colonial self-determinationp. 336
18.4.2 Secessionp. 338
18.4.3 Different covenants, different rights?p. 339
18.4.4 Autonomy for minority and indigenous groupsp. 341
18.4.5 Free, prior, and informed consentp. 342
18.4.6 Self-determination and the African Charterp. 343
18.5 Claiming self-determinationp. 343
18.6 Conclusionsp. 345
19 Indigenous peoples' and minority rightsp. 348
19.1 Minority rightsp. 349
19.1.1 Background to minority rightsp. 349
19.1.2 The need for minority protectionp. 350
19.1.3 Defining 'minorities'p. 351
19.1.4 The scope of Art 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rightsp. 354
19.1.5 Other UN initiativesp. 362
19.1.6 Regional developmentsp. 362
19.2 Indigenous peoplesp. 364
19.2.1 Historical issuesp. 364
19.2.2 Claims of indigenous peoplesp. 365
19.2.3 International developmentsp. 369
19.2.4 Regional developmentsp. 370
19.3 Conclusionsp. 372
20 Freedom of expressionp. 375
20.1 Freedom of expressionp. 376
20.2 Freedom of the press and mediap. 377
20.2.1 State-owned mediap. 378
20.2.2 Regional developmentsp. 379
20.2.3 Link to human rights educationp. 379
20.3 Overlap with other rights (correspondence, privacy, association)p. 379
20.4 Exceptionsp. 380
20.4.1 Propaganda for war or national, racial, or religious hatredp. 382
20.4.2 War/public emergencyp. 383
20.4.3 National security/public orderp. 383
20.4.4 Public health and moralsp. 385
20.4.5 The rights and reputations of othersp. 386
20.5 Conclusionsp. 387
21 The right to education and human rights educationp. 390
21.1 The right to educationp. 391
21.1.1 Access to educationp. 391
21.1.2 Nature of educationp. 394
21.1.3 Academic freedomp. 397
21.1.4 The United Nations' Special Rapporteur on the right to educationp. 398
21.2 The right to human rights educationp. 398
21.2.1 Links to other human rightsp. 399
21.2.2 Achieving universal education on human rightsp. 399
21.2.3 Teaching non-discriminationp. 400
21.2.4 The United Nations Decade of Human Rights Educationp. 401
21.3 Conclusionsp. 402
22 Sustainable development and human rightsp. 405
22.1 The right to developmentp. 406
22.2 The Millennium Development Goalsp. 406
22.3 Towards Agenda 2030p. 408
22.4 Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Developmentp. 408
22.4.1 People: social developmentp. 409
22.4.2 Planet: environmental rightsp. 410
22.4.3 Prosperity: economic developmentp. 412
22.4.4 Peacep. 413
22.5 UN Sustainable Development Goalsp. 414
22.5.1 Monitoring progress towards the SDCsp. 415
22.5.2 Cross-cutting human rights themesp. 417
22.5.3 Accountabilityp. 418
22.5.4 Participationp. 419
22.5 Conclusionsp. 420
23 Current issues: non-State actorsp. 421
23.1 Positive obligations to protect, respect, promote, and fulfil treaty obligationsp. 422
23.2 Non-State armed groupsp. 422
23.2.1 Private armed security firmsp. 425
23.3 Business and human rightsp. 426
23.3.1 ILO fundamental conventionsp. 428
23.3.2 UN Global Compactp. 429
23.3.3 UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rightsp. 430
23.4 International, regional, and non-governmental organizationsp. 431
23.4.1 The United Nationsp. 431
23.4.2 Non-governmental organizationsp. 432
23.5 Conclusionsp. 434
Indexp. 437